Diabetic diet can help meet nutritional needs, control blood sugar, achieve a healthy weight, and prevent the risk of associated illness.
Diabetes usually occurs after 40 years and mainly affects obese or overweight people.
Diabetic diet to adopt for type 1 diabetic is different than type 2 diabetic. The goal of treating these two diabetes is a normalization of blood glucose.
Diet for diabetic type 1?
People with type 1 diabetes are treated with insulin. It is important to learn how to adjust your insulin dose according to your dietary intake. It is the treatment that adapts to the diet of the diabetic and not the other way round.
It is necessary to quantify the carbohydrates consumed to inject the right dose of insulin.
In order to vary the carbohydrates consumed, it is important to play with carbohydrate equivalents.
Diet for diabetic type 2?
When you are type 2 diabetic, it is essential to have a balanced and varied diet to avoid high blood sugar variations.
Diabetic diet, the main recommendations:
5 fruits and vegetables a day, with a maximum of 3 fruits
3 dairy products a day
Meat / fish / eggs 1-2 times daily
Limit the amounts of fat
Consume enough carbohydrates but by choosing them well
Limit the amounts of alcohol
When you are diabetic, know that no food is to be banned from his diet. Follow the recommendations of a varied and balanced diet by eating everything in reasonable quantities.
Foods with interesting nutritional profiles, such as fruits, vegetables and dairy products, should be used to optimize your diet.
Focus on carbohydrates:
There are two types of carbohydrates: simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates.
Simple carbohydrates, which quickly increase your blood sugar, are found in confectionery, pastries, white table sugar … In short, all products with a sweet taste. It may be advisable to consume sweetened products (ie sweeteners such as aspartame or stevia), to limit their effect on your blood sugar.
You can find complex carbohydrates in starchy foods (pasta, rice …), cereals and bread. These carbohydrates make your blood sugar levels less variable. It is recommended to focus on whole grains.
The fibers they contain have the nutritional benefit of modulating digestion and helping to regulate blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
Focus on lipids:
When you are diabetic, a diet that is too high in fat affects the effectiveness of insulin and contributes to overweight.
According to some recommendations, lipid consumption must represent 35 to 40% of our daily energy intake. The most important is to vary the sources of fat intake (vegetable and animal). However, prefer unsaturated fats (products of plant origin) to saturated (products of animal origin).
As a Type 1 Diabetic or Type 2 Diabetic, these tips will help you have a balanced diet and reduce the complications associated with diabetes. Remember to consult your doctor and / or dietician for the management of your diet.
Diabetes special diet type 2: recommendations
Diabetics or overweight people must adopt a balanced and controlled calorie diet. The goal is to regain a healthy weight, avoid hypoglycemia and the risk of cardiovascular disease. This is what the Diabetic Type 2 diet offers.
What are the anti-diabetes foods?
Diabetic nutrition includes foods that are beneficial for diabetes. These foods provide the body with just what it needs while stabilizing blood sugar. Thus, following these recommendations type 2 diabetes can be much better lived in everyday life.
Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates
It is now recognized that taking into account the glycemic index (GI) foods can bring benefits under the Diabetic Diet. A low GI diet makes it possible, among other things, to have a lower blood glucose, better metabolic control and a better blood lipid level. This is in any case the conclusion of two meta-analyzes. It is recommended to focus on foods with a low or medium glycemic index. Foods with a high glycemic index are to be avoided.
Omega-3 of marine origin
Omega-3 can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in diabetics. They reduce the concentration of blood triglycerides. It also seems that fish, in general, would reduce the risk of diabetes or glucose intolerance. However, it is recommended that regular consumption of fish with fish oil alternatives be preferred. The American Heart Association recommends that patients with cardiovascular conditions consume 1g of Omega 3 (EPA and DHA) per day. Which corresponds to 3 servings of 150g of fatty fish per week.
The oily fish richest in omega-3 are:
- Atlantic Salmon
- Canned sardines
Soluble dietary fiber
Dietary fiber reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Once proven, dietary fiber helps reduce blood lipid levels. Soluble fiber in particular slows down gastric emptying and delays glucose uptake, improving glucose levels after a meal. Type 2 diabetics are prone to hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol levels). the fibers can decrease this rate. It is thus possible that an intake of 50g per day may have an effect on insulin and blood lipid levels. It is recommended to consume between 25 and 50g of fiber as part of the diabetic diet.
Some tips for integrating psyllium or oat bran into diabetic diet:
- Consume it at meals in a large glass of water
- Eat cereals enriched with psyllium
- Add psyllium or oat bran in baking recipes
- Mix it with yogurt and cereals for a gourmet dessert
- In classic recipes (bread crumbs, sauces, etc.), add some oat bran
Diabetes contributes to the activity of oxidants, free radicals. It will therefore consume enough foods rich in antioxidants to offset this phenomenon. Antioxidants are mostly present in fruits and vegetables. They inhibit the damage caused by glycation (reaction between glucose and proteins), responsible for the accelerated aging of tissues. It is important to note that glycation can lead to complications such as arteriosclerosis, kidney failure, diabetic retinopathy, etc.
Incorporate an evening snack
It is important to take your blood sugar at bedtime and have a snack as needed. This helps prevent nighttime hypoglycaemia followed by morning hyperglycaemia.
Diabetes: which foods are banned?
As part of the diabetic diet, some foods are to be avoided. In addition to increasing the risk of hypoglycemia, they harm the body in the long run. Indeed, the following foods promote weight gain, elevated blood lipid levels and therefore the risk of cardiovascular disease in the long term.
Controlling carbohydrate intake is of paramount importance in a diabetic diet. Carbohydrates are naturally present in foods (fruits, dairy products, starchy foods, etc.) but can also be added. In industrial products we often find added sugars in the form of sucrose, glucose, fructose, dextrose, syrups, etc. All these added sugars should be consumed in moderation. They are not very nutritious and cause large variations in blood sugar. It is suggested not to consume more than 10% of total calories as added sugars if blood glucose is stable. If this is not the case, make sure not to consume more than 5% of the total calories in the form of added sugars.
Foods rich in added sugars:
- Breakfast cereals
- Sweet yogurts
- Vinaigrettes and sauces
- Cereal bars
- Biscuits and cakes
- Jams, jellies and spreads
Saturated fatty acids
It is better to choose cheeses and lean meats and limit butter and cream. It is equally important to read the labels carefully so as not to be mistaken in choosing a product rich in saturated and trans fats. It will consume foods rich in Omega-6 in moderation. They can indeed, if consumed in excess, oxidize and create a rise in fasting blood glucose.
The sources of fat to avoid:
- Hydrogenated vegetable oils
- Fatty meat and cold meats
- Grapeseed, sesame, sunflower and corn oils
As we have seen above, industrial foods often contain a significant proportion of added sugars and saturated fats. In addition to promoting weight gain, they have a negative effect on blood glucose and blood lipid levels. As part of the diet for diabetics, it is highly recommended to cook your own dishes as much as possible and to avoid prepared meals and industrial foods.
Fructose produces a lower insulin response than sucrose or starch. On the other hand, taken in large quantities, it is associated with an increase in the level of triglycerides in the blood. It is therefore recommended to avoid excessive consumption of fructose daily. This intake should be limited to 60g per day maximum. Fructose is found in foods (fruits, honey, etc.), in beverages (especially fruit juices) but also in processed products in the form of glucose-fructose syrup. As always, it is important to read the labels properly.
As part of the Diabetic Type 2 diet, care must be taken to consume alcohol in moderation. A glass of alcohol is tolerated only if the blood glucose is well balanced, otherwise the risk of hypoglycemia is high. Especially when treated with insulin or with drugs that stimulate insulin secretion. The intake of alcohol must be done while eating.
1 serving of alcohol per day is tolerated in women and 2 servings per day in men.
A portion of alcohol corresponds to:
- 350ml of beer
- 12cl of wine
- 5 cl strong alcohol and spirits
Other foods not recommended:
Fried and breadcrumbs
Benefits of Dieting in Type 2 Diabetics
The special diet for diabetic type 2 aims to:
- Bridging nutritional needs
- Control blood sugar
- Prevent hypoglycemia
- Achieve a healthy weight
- Prevent cardiovascular disease
Diabetes and diet are closely related. This sheet gives you dietary recommendations for diabetics. On the other hand, it can’t replace a consultation with a dietitian-nutritionist graduate. Several factors such as age, sex, weight, treatment, etc. can influence these dietary recommendations.
In diabetic adults, carbohydrates must account for 50 to 55% of total energy intake, proteins 10 to 15% and lipids 30 to 40%. These differences make it possible to individualize nutritional treatment on a case by case basis.
Diabetic diet helps control blood sugar
Controlling blood sugar is a priority for people with diabetes. Indeed, in addition to aggravating diabetes in the long term, a rise in blood sugar can be very dangerous at the moment. The Diabetic Type 2 diet aims to spread carbohydrates and different food groups fairly evenly throughout the day. Indeed, to control blood sugar and weight, carbohydrate intake must be well distributed throughout the day and the spacing between meals must be adequate. It is not advisable, for example, to take four servings of fruit at breakfast and not to eat for the rest of the day.
Diabetic Type 2 Diet Prevents Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia mainly affects diabetics who take insulin. It is a sharp drop in blood glucose that can be caused by various events such as:
Taking insulin or overdose medication
Delayed meal or snack
Meal too light
Unexpected physical activity
Achieve a healthy weight with a full diet
Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight can play a role in controlling blood glucose and stabilizing it. A loss of 5 to 10% of the initial weight already improves insulin sensitivity, glycemic control and control of blood lipid levels. A healthy weight also helps to prevent diseases associated with type 2 diabetes. By eating better, reducing portions and moving more, you will achieve this goal naturally.
Special diet type 2 diabetes to prevent cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease is one of the most common complications of type 2 diabetes. The risk of cardiovascular disease is 2 to 3 times higher in people with diabetes. It is therefore essential that the diabetic diet takes this risk into consideration and proposes appropriate dietary measures. As part of the diet for diabetics, we will take care to reduce the intake of fat while focusing on good fats. It is a diet low in saturated and trans fatty acids.
People with diabetes who want to accurately calculate their total energy requirement to evaluate the amount of carbohydrate, protein and fat to consume can do so with the help of a certified dietician.
Diabetes and nutrition: our daily practical tips
Here are some lifestyle habits to adopt to combine diabetes and healthy eating:
Add oat bran in cereals, yogurts and dishes
Make a habit of sprinkling dishes and desserts with ground flaxseed, rich in Omega 3
Choose complete starchy foods
Replace meat as much as possible with legumes that contain natural carbohydrates, fiber and protein
Always have canned fish (mackerel, sardines, etc.)
Freeze fruits to have them available all year regardless of the season
Replace sugar with fruit puree in desserts
Use vegetable oils instead of butter in the kitchen
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