The low calorie diet is a diet that includes a calorie/energy rating lower than that required by the body every day throughout the day.
Eye of one, such a professional definition may seem reductive or only partially acceptable; In fact, the characteristics and requirements of a good low calorie diet are much more numerous, but, strictly speaking, the etymology of the word is nothing less essential, namely: • Feeding: feeding rules or feeding Controlled, the result of a new therapeutic indication; The Greek “diiata ” means that “lifestyle “
- Hypo–: diminutive particles
- Caloric: Which brings or calories/energy
Who orders and makes the diet low-calorie? Why?
The low-calorie diet is a nutritional therapy; “therapy ” means “care ” or “healing ” which means that the application of the diet includes at least two discriminating:
- Must be prescribed/evaluated/structured and supervised by a qualified professional (dietitian, a nutrition biologist or dietitian)-are called to other details legislative readings;
- It should not be used if necessary; As a “pharmacological Cycle”, the low calorie diet, it should not healthy people in a normal weight and/or without metabolic alterations that make it justifiable.
The low calorie diet should exclude any aesthetic end, because its prolonged use (considered that beyond 6-8 months) implies an obvious constraint on the subject, both physically, as well as psychologically; Although, of course, low-calorie diets are not all equal.
On the other hand, although there is an ethical-professional protection regulation, many pseudo-professionals indulge in the prescribing and unofficial composition of the low-calorie diet, ignoring or circumventing the regulations. Some of the most frequent ” Jam ” are the following:
- Transcription of a low-calorie diet of free quantities (legally granted to personal trainer) whose parts are specified “verbally”;
- Printing (with typewriter or computer) of the low-calorie diet without an authentication signature (so as to avoid traceability or a legal challenge);
- The composition of a diet was then authenticated by a qualified and ethically incorrect professional.
All against low calorie diet: fad diets and false beliefs
The improper application and extremes of the low calorie diet over the last half century have led to a collective rejection of energy restriction.
Today there is increasing discussion of the metabolic target of nutrients, the abandonment of estimated caloric, return to ancestral diet, exploitation of hormonal cycles, increases metabolism, acid-base balance, Ying and yang Energies, Nutrigenic, etc. of the nutrigenomics. Moreover, according to some schools of thought, the low calorie diet does not hurt, do not lose weight and reduces your metabolism! We are not talking about why or how these statements are inaccurate and approximate.
The most curious is that, in most cases (but not always), these concepts with the foundations of a great truth, but unfortunately distorted or poorly applied/released. In addition, some statements do not take into account the fact that conventional diet therapy provides a constant update of experimental research and medical statistics-nutrition; This means that professionals should always be well updated and informed about the different “news ” (with the reserves of professionalism).
Some people, he washes his hands completely and says: “Calories are an obsolete, useless, misleading concept; It is necessary that consuming foods that (for one reason or another) are required to metabolize properly. “From there he follows the delirium; which completely abolishes milk and its derivatives, cereals and legumes (including derivatives), fresh fruit, etc. E ‘ should also specify that sometimes we see good and fair accomplishments, such as the abandonment of food artifacts, the nervin drinks, sugar, salt and added fats, etc. Oddly enough, it is these attitudes, born in opposition to food restriction, if applied in parallel to form not only a true low calorie diet (and also those “difficult”!), but also a diet that excludes 50% of Food available. So much for freedom and the hallway! Obviously they are losing weight, God forbid! Analysis of the complex through the eyes of a professional, abolition: oil and butter, all packaged or canned food, cereals, legumes, milk, fatty cheeses and meats, and almost all fruits, they would remain Only: Lean meat and fish, eggs, vegetables and dried fruit. In practice, a diet rich in protein, and potentially ketogenic necessarily have low calorie content (unless you use abnormal portions). Probably, documenting the potential risks of a similar LONG-term diet, the reader will understand how these strategies can be removed from health requirements and nutritional education.
We also recall that, using the traditional food system (that, as much rejected by the new “Guru ” nutrition) for a total energy estimate, there is no weight loss diet without calorie COUNT that are not, in Fact, a low fat content skillfully disguised as conditional release food.
I think that, after saying, there is no need to say more.
When the low calorie diet is needed? What are its application implications?
As expected, the low calorie diet is a therapy.
The use “PRIMARY ” This diet is designed to slimming, or a reduction in fat mass and waist circumference and index body mass index/body mass (BMI/BMI). It is well known that overweight and obesity even worse are related to the onset of metabolic, primary and secondary, environmental and/or hereditary diseases; Some examples are as follows: • Dyslipidemia (high cholesterol and/or LDL, high triglycerides, both)
- Hyperglycemia or type 2 diabetes mellitus
- Hyperuricemia and/or gout;
- And more than a concurrent move to define what is called ‘ metabolic syndrome ‘.
Metabolic diseases have a number of complications and negative effects on the organism, which aggravate the quality of life, increase the risk of death or permanent disability and significantly increase health spending Public Complications and negative aspects are: microcirculation changes, sight, peripheral nervous system, organ function (including kidney, liver and heart), systemic inflammation, atherosclerosis, and a risk Cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular syndrome). No shortage of joint nature and ligament disorders.
The low-calorie diet, as well as reducing overweight-either indirectly by reducing the risk of onset and the severity of metabolic diseases-also has a direct effect on physiological parameters such as Indicators of health status (e.g. blood and hemodynamic). This means that the low calorie diet, being balanced, is able to reduce LDL and total cholesterol (sometimes to increase HDL), triglycerides, blood glucose, blood pressure, serum uric acid concentration and To improve other blood indices such as systemic parameters of inflammation; All this aside from weight loss. In the end, the low-calorie diet is a dietary therapy that only affects overweight subjects, in order to improve quality and life expectancy (which reduces the risk of adverse events) through the reduction of Mass of fat (especially in the hope that visceral) and restoration of optimal physiological parameters. A low calorie diet should also be associated with the motor therapy and, only if necessary, as pharmacological action.
Calorie Diet: A real headache
Certainly, readers will have already asked what are the reasons for the discrimination between a qualified professional and an improvised self-taught. Technical and methodological Point of view, nowadays, the computer works beautifully; So it’s possible to get a low calorie diet through automation and in just a few minutes. To make an apt comparison, one wonders why there are no machines “musical Composition ” Independent; In all fields, the robot can replace the man only in the calculation, but not the reasoning.
We say that the low calorie diet looks a lot like a “puzzle ” or the famous video games “Tetris ” (They grant me the two small similarities “specialist “), whose parts or segments are: physical characteristics, Medical needs, habits and lifestyle, willingness, availability and strength of will of the subject. In addition, each piece or segment is further structured and defined by many other assessments and mathematical equations. Wanting to be fussy at this level would be possible to automate the method; It is enough to assign a value within a numeric scale for each evaluation parameter. A little ‘ how to estimate the vascular risk. Then why not?
Simple. The answer is that: “The first goal of the nutritional therapist who prescribes a low calorie diet is that this is properly applied and followed.” In a nutshell: “Compliance “. Compliance with the low calorie diet is always the result (or compromise, depending on the point of view) of an abstract formula not mathematically assessable, whose variables are:
- Patient-caregiver Relationship (trust, honesty, empathy, ability to dialogue, listening and understanding, communication skills, intuition, cunning, ability to induce motivation, etc.)
- Accuracy and precision of the method
As we have just described does not represent a free complication; Just think about the fact that:
- It would be pointless to gain the confidence and motivation of the patient and then lose by assigning a low calorie diet ineffective or inconvenient;
- It would be pointless to provide a technically perfect low level of fat if the patient has not been motivated or refuses to disgust the structuring foods;
- It would be pointless to prescribe a low-calorie diet consisting of all the more acceptable foods, but that in the end is proving ineffective or which, although totally perfect, cannot take advantage of the good motivation/client confidence.
Psychologically, the behavior of the patient emphasizes either variable in a totally subjective environment, which is why, to two different entities (although they share the same nutritional needs) very little Chances of being given the same low calorie diet.
Clearly, the basic and essential requirements of the low-calorie diet are: health, nutritional education and nutritional balance. The professional must know how to shape the system that guarantees the therapeutic objective and the respect of the code of Ethics.
The ability to interpret all these variables (but not only) is the difference between the different professionals and explains why all patients get the same results with the same operator, and because everyone prefers a Technique and a low calorie diet rather than on the other hand.
Not a machine can do all this, therefore, a pseudo-professional who does not possess the technical knowledge-methodological enough to understand what are the objectives (as well as the therapeutic priority) of the patient, and for this rests Interchangeably automation, can only fill a BAD job.
Let me be clear, it’s hard to lose weight people and sometimes even reduce cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose and blood pressure; However, the Performance must be evaluated as a whole. Autumn in the judgment of a good low calorie diet also: nutritional deficiency, and the need to integrate with medications/supplements, psychological social habits to stress by preserving, any repetition of the disease ( Index of non-food education), organ fatigue, onset of symptoms or different types of disadvantages, etc.
Notions of nutritional balance of low calorie diet: problems in composition
The reader will now understand that formulating a good low calorie diet is not an easy task. Even as from the technical and methodological point of view, it takes a long time, a thorough chemical knowledge of various foods, experience in food associations, etc. Sometimes in the most restrictive calorie diets (those that must be attributed to people with severe disabilities, bedridden, elderly, sedentary and with a lot of physical structure reduced, severe obese who Require fast and out of the ordinary weight loss and so on.) is really complicated to reach the necessary dimensions of certain nutrients without exceeding the ration of the other components.
Among the molecules/ions whose daily dose is more difficult to achieve we recognize:
- Iron (especially in pregnant and fertile women)
- Football (especially in the elderly and in children),
- fatty acids Essentials of the Ω-3 family (especially in those who consume no fish)
- Vitamin B2 (especially in lactose intolerance and those that do not consume milk and dairy products),
- Folate (especially in people who do not consume fresh vegetables),
- Vitamin B12 (especially in vegan people)
- Vitamin D (in all low-calorie diets, and especially in those of more and more elderly people)
Among the molecules/ions more difficult to contain/reduce in the low calorie diet, we recognize: • Saturated fatty acids (especially in subjects that season with butter and not with oil),
- Cholesterol (especially in people consuming large quantities of eggs, cheese and offal),
- Sodium (especially in people consuming large quantities of stored products),
- Simple sugars (in all low-calorie diets)
- Protein (in all low-calorie diets MA with more interest when there is liver disease or, in some cases, renal)
- Purine (only in the presence of a hereditary metabolic disease that induce a manifest gout)
- Lactose (in intolerant subjects),
- Gluten (in intolerant subjects).
In conclusion, having to make a choice “for health ” I suggest to be directed to qualified readers and perhaps professionals specialized in thinning of obesity, as well as in the treatment of metabolic diseases; Less fashionable diets and more awareness!